Cranio-Vertebral AnomaliesDR. ANKUR NANDAN VARSHNEY IMS, BHU Varanasi. Cranio vertebral anomalies- overview -. 1. DR. SUMIT KAMBLE SENIOR RESIDENT DEPT. OF NEUROLOGY GMC, KOTA; 2. ANATOMY OF. The craniovertebral junction is the most complex of the axial skeleton, residing between the skull and the upper cervical spine. Congenital, developmental, and .

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Quantitative anatomy of lateral masses of the atlas and axis vertebrae. The odontoid base fails to fuse with the axis. Recently this has become the preferred procedure. This was the beginning. The proatlas may craniovertevral into separate vertebrae – Occipital vertebrahypochondral bow of proatlas may persist to gain attachment to the atlas, clivus or even to the apical segment of the dens – responsible for anti-cervico medially compression.

Down’s syndrome lax joints. Malformations of occipital bone: Sixty-six patients with irreducible pathology craniovedtebral ventral or ventrolateral decompression and dorsal stabilization.

A report of treated patients. Ventromedial part of the somatomes migrate and cluster around notochord- Sclerotomes.

Craniovertebral anomalies.

Reduction in anomalie is appreciated in the immediate post operative period. It encompasses and protects the medulla oblongata and the upper cervical spinal cord.

Malformation of axis Irregular atlantoaxial segmentation Dens dysplasias Ossiculum terminale persistence Osodontoideum Segmentation falilure of C Neural dysgenesis. Majority of patients present in their second or third decade.


A-A dislocation is the commonest abnormality, be it craniovertebrwl or acquired. Prepare and succeed on your medical exams. Out of 4 occipital sclerotomes the first 2 form basiocciputthe III Jugular tubercles and the IV Proatlas form parts of foramen magnum, atlas and axis.

Gallow popularized the technique of midline wiring which kept the atlas and axis is opposition. A fissure in each sclerotome separate a denser caudal half from loosely arranged cranial half. Careful exam reveals a small hypoplastic odontoid at the upper border of the body of the axis. Reduction of fixed atlantoaxial dislocation: Goel A, Kulkarni AG.

Craniovertebral realignment for basilar invagination and atlantoaxial dislocation secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. Mesenchymal cells of the fissure condense to form I. CVJ anomalies that decrease the volume of the posterior cranial fossa e.

Screw fixation of facet junctions, Halifax clamps, contoured rods are the latest. Role for craniovertebral realignment. Some feel a stabilization procedure is not required in selected cases.

Craniovertebral anomalies.

Smaller number present with neck tilt, neck pain, cough headaches, occipital cephalalgia without any deficit. Operative treatment has involved thro’ several modifications. Treatment of basilar invagination by atlantoaxial joint distraction and direct lateral mass fixation. This prospective study analyzes patients with Chiari malformation and cranikvertebral craniovertebral junction CVJ anomalies years.

CT scan with reconstruction is still preferred by some to study bone details. Upper and lower motor neuron palsies Cranial nerve palsies Cerebellar symptoms Epilepsy Intellectual disability Always associated with encephalocele. The transverse ligament may be basically in- competent or become so after a minor trauma.


Caudal half joins with cephalic half of adjacent sclerotome – future vertebra Mesenchymal cells of the fissure condense to form I.

A crsniovertebral developmental anomaly of the occipital bone and upper cervical spine with striking and misleading neurologic manifestations. Spino cranoovertebral involvement is uncommon. Factors considered were reducibility, mode of encroachment, cerebrospinal fluid CSF dynamics and syringohydromyelia. Thus the atlas may get invaginated.

An injury in early childhood probably leads to Os-odontoideum in later life due to ahomalies necrosis. Blood supply thro’ the body of axis is limited due to interposition of cartilage between body and the odontoid process. Many of the patients have history of fall. Mal aligned bony components of the spinal canal compress underlying cord due to dislocation of the joints, the commonest is Atlanto axial dislocation.

The C-V junction is a transition site between mobile cranium and relatively rigid spinal column.

Craniovertebral junction anomalies – Knowledge for medical students and physicians

Acta Neurochir Wien ; But the diagnosis of Os odontoideum is much more frequent in clinical practice. Caudal half joins with cephalic half of adjacent sclerotome – future vertebra. These are only few odontoid base falls to the above specification.