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Peak point of the recorded response which defines the maximum load state is usually sustained at the extension of cracks into tie columns ends. It is also noted, that panels with an aspect ratio greater than 2. Cracking drift capacity of C M walls, on average, is in the range of 0. In fact, increase in the amount of column longitudinal reinforcement substantially improves load-carrying capacity of C M walls.

Hence, a term in the form of Q yJPvcfyvcfc w a s considered in the development of the maximum shear strength model to reflect the effect of tie columns. The most common anomalies in the response curves that led to the removal of data were: The ability of the proposed equation to predict vm In the development of the analytical model Equation was not used to predict vm where masonry shear strength was not reported from compression diagonal tests.

The location of tie columns, and thus, their number, is greatly influenced by the number of panels within an individual wall, and the presence of openings. On the other hand, the rupture of insufficient bed-joint reinforcement would trigger the crushing of masonry right off the rupture zone which adversely affects the seismic performance of C M walls. This point of significant reduction in the effective stiffness was chosen as the cracking point of the analytical model which is defined by two parameters: Therefore, the measured drift ratios could not be reliably used for development of the drift models.

Literature review 5 2. The general types of data removed in the process of creating the model equations are described in the list below: To provide further 39 Chapter 3: Literature review Efficacy of panel horizontal reinforcement is substantially influenced by two key factors; its amount and type.

Capacidad soportante de paredes de mampostería confinada ante cargas laterales

However, for some specimens, these confining elements are also provided at wall mid-height to improve the overall seismic performance of C M walls by confining the extent of damage. Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry wall D D. New variables, however, were derived on the basis of this initial set.


Furthermore, in the process of creating the model equations, some of the data points were also removed from the analysis where they were recognized as having the potential to skew the results of the regression analysis.

Tie columns should be provided mamopsteria sufficient longitudinal reinforcement to avoid the predominance of flexural deformations and wall uplift as a result of rebar yielding at the base of columns 13 Chapter 2: Furthermore, improvement of the model statistical significance using the functional form of the equation proposed by Loov et al demonstrated the accuracy of considering the effect of tie columns through shear friction.

Deformation capacity, on the other hand, has been only addressed through empirically imposed limits which are either highly conservative or largely overestimate the observed capacity of C M walls. As conifnada elsewhere in this report, the applicability of these predictive equations is 2 More specific model limitations are described throughout the chapter 64 Chapter 3: Furthermore, the ratio of horizontal reinforcement to tie column longitudinal reinforcement should always be precisely controlled in order to avoid the predominance of flexural failure mode for over-reinforced C M walls Casabonne, ; Zabala, The most important variables included in confinaca model are: To demonstrate the variability that C M walls inherently possess, mampostsria most 43 Chapter 3: For such a specimen the ratio of the experimental to calculated mean model parameters approach to unity.

Therefore, appropriate cracking and maximum shear strength models for C M walls cofninada be proposed. As a result, the term indicative of the role of aspect ratio conrinada Equation should be considered for slender panels to come up with accurate cracking and maximum shear strength models.

As shown in Figurepost-peak behaviour of C M walls is mampoxteria influenced by reinforcement detailing of tie columns ends. Intermediate tie columns and bond beams are recommended for use in the critical first stories of C M buildings in highly active seismic regions, and when panel shear resistance is insufficient on its own as is the case for poor-quality hand-made units, and at opening borders. The effect of bed joint reinforcement on the seismic behaviour of CM walls, and the inability of the model to predict the maximum and ultimate response parameters Aguilar et al, 68 Figure Hollow masonry units, commonly used for reinforced masonry RM systems, are in practice also relied on for construction of C M walls.

However, i f designed and constructed properly, C M walls made of hand-made units, as the results of full-scale tests by Zabala et al confirm, would still perform satisfactorily in earthquakes. Furthermore, to accommodate the installation process, masonry units are recommended to be grooved on their top cohfinada Mercado, Therefore, both dynamic testing of specimens having almost identical characteristics to typical C M walls and in-situ testing of C M walls are needed for validation of the models under dynamic loading conditions, and for adjustment appropriate in building practice.


The most significant contributor source is previous work by Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico U N A M, with partial contribution in development of of total specimens. Statistical distribution of tie column design variables 92 Figure A Literature review Gibu, P.

The outcome of this research, however, could contribute to the development of more accurate models and guidelines for improvement of these currently deficient provisions. However, it fails to track the observed backbone response of anomalous or atypical C M walls. Performance-based seismic models for confined masonry mamposterka Moroni, M. Simplification of tie column reinforcement detailing by replacing multiple rebar and stirrups with single equivalent rebar and continada hoops, as the results of Yoshimura indicate, would lead to the occurrence of sliding at panel-foundation interface.

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Fitness of the proposed model to the experimental data 3. The effect of openings on cracking shear strength of CM walls 51 Figure Confined masonry database maximum attained strength. Parameters describing detailed panel characteristics are Unit-type and Unit-material.

The first database includes monotonic and reversed cyclic tests; the second set comprises 24 shake table and pseudo-dynamic experiments. Model uncertainties are merely accounted for using standard deviations. Post-peak behaviour of a typical CM wall Zabala et al, 8 Figure The coefficient a which is multiplied by vm in Equation and was determined on the basis of a few data points since slender C M walls comprise only a small portion of the database.

Lognormal distribution of SmaJduu 3. In this model, a — the normal stress acting on the crack – is primarily influenced by column longitudinal reinforcement, and to a lesser degree by transverse reinforcement detailing Loov et al, Figure A -4 illustrates the distribution of the number of tie columns throughout the database. Data removal for the prediction of Scr, Table B Distribution of the number of tie columns 88 Figure A